caterina de medici

Orphaned within days, Catherine was highly educated, trained, and disciplined by nuns in Florence and Rome and married in 1533 by her uncle, Pope Clement VII, to Henry, duc d’Orléans, who inherited the French crown from his father, Francis I, in April 1547. Ultimately, Francis I suggested his younger son: Henry, Duke of Orleans. She did, however, have a governess when she returned to Florence in 1532 and went on to have a passion for literature and science all her life. The complexity of Catherine’s position during these years cannot be briefly explained. Catherine ended the first civil war in March 1563 by the Edict of Amboise, an attenuated version of the Edict of January. It is essential to understand this in order to discern the coherence of her career. She was not primarily responsible for the more far-reaching Treaty of Saint-Germain (August 1570), but she succeeded in disgracing the Guises. Its principal purpose was to execute the edict and, through a meeting at Bayonne in June 1565, to seek to strengthen peaceful relations between the crown and Spain and to negotiate for Charles’s marriage to Elizabeth of Austria. Modern historians tend towards a more moderate view of Catherine as a powerful woman in a dangerous time. On January 5, 1589, Catherine died, probably of a lung infection. Thenceforth the problem of religion was one of power, public order, and administration. In August 1563 she declared the King of age in the Parlement of Rouen and, from April 1564 to January 1566, conducted him on a marathon itinerary round France. Catherine and Henry were married on October 28, 1533, both aged 14. This rejection was one basic element in the outbreak of civil war in 1562, in which—as she had predicted—Catherine fell, politically, into the clutches of the extremists, because the Catholic crown might protect its Protestant subjects in law but could not defend them in arms. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It is also necessary to understand this political struggle of the Catholic crown with its own ultramontane extremists and to perceive its fluctuations in changing circumstances, in order to realize the fundamental consistency of Catherine’s career. The foundation of the civil wars in France was religion — more specifically, the question of how a Catholic country would handle a growing number of Huguenots (Protestants). Catherine de Medici’s foodie legacy Download here the infographic about Caterina de' Medici. The entertainments also had the intention of keeping French nobles from in-fighting by providing them with amusement and diversion. Giulio was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523. Collaboration opportunities and storytelling projects. Following the wedding celebrations in August 1572, Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny was murdered. Updates? By 1537, Henry had his first acknowledged child with another mistress but he and Catherine failed to produce any children, until 1544 when their first son Francis was born. "The Wedding of Catherine de Medici and Henry, Duke of Orléans" by Jacopo Chimenti da Empoli is conserved in the Uffizi Gallery. Recipes she brought to the French court include carabaccia (onion soup) and melarancio duck (canard a l’orange) which she served at her wedding feast in 1533. In 1561, with the support of the distinguished chancellor Michel de L’Hospital, she began by trying to propitiate the leaders of both religious factions, to effect reforms and economies by unassailably traditional methods, and to settle the religious conflict. Catherine lived in an era of constantly shifting alliances, both political and religious, and fought to keep a stable future for her children. The couple had a total of 10 children, six of whom survived infancy. Catherine de Medici (born Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici; April 13, 1519-January 5, 1589) was a member of the powerful Italian Medici family who became queen consort of France through her marriage to King Henry II. While Catherine was his official consort, he bestowed most favors and influence upon Diane de Poitiers. The 10 years from 1560 to 1570 were, politically, the most important of Catherine’s life. Her dedication to architecture earned her a contemporary parallel to Artemesia, an ancient Carian (Greek) queen who built the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus as a tribute after her husband’s death. During the period 1564–68, Catherine was unable, for complex reasons, to withstand the cardinal Lorraine, statesman of the Guises, who largely provoked the second and third civil wars. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. She was placed in a series of convents for protection. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. She issued an edict of tolerance in 1562, but only months later a faction led by the Duke of Guise massacred worshipping Huguenots and sparked the French Wars of Religion.

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